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Lacrimal apparatus parts

Lacrimal Apparatus , Anatomy Q

  1. Lacrimal gland consists of two parts, the larger orbital and smaller palpebral. The orbital and palpebral parts are continuous with each other around lateral margin of levator palpebrae superioris. The secretions from theses parts are drained by ten to twelve ducts (4-5 from the orbital part and 6-8 from palpebral part)
  2. The fluid drains further into the nasolacrimal duct, which is the final part of the lacrimal apparatus and opens into the nasal cavity, specifically, into the inferior nasal meatus. If there is excess of tears, it drains via the nasolacrimal duct into the nasal cavity, thus causing what is called a runny nose
  3. The lacrimal gland is approximately 2cm long. It can be divided into two main parts: Orbital - larger and sits on the lateral margin of the levator palpabrae superioris muscle. Palprebral - smaller and is located along the inner surface of the eyelid
  4. The lacrimal apparatus consists of the lacrimal glands, which secrete the tears, and the lacrimal sac and ducts, which convey the tears into the nasal cavity. Secretory function of the lacrimal glands declines with age, and many elderly individuals develop dry eye syndrome
  5. PARTS OF THE LACRIMAL GLAND  The larger Orbital part is in a depression, the lacrimal fossa, in the frontal bone;  The smaller Palpebral part is inferior to levator palpebrae superioris,in the superolateral part of the eyelid 6. ORBITAL PART OF LACRIMAL GLAND  It is large about the size and shape of a small almond
  6. LACRIMAL APPARATUS ANATOMY The lacrimal apparatus is the collective design of the lacrimal ducts which secrete tears (the lacrimal fluid,) and a few extra ducts that allow extra lacrimal fluid to drain into the nasal cavity. The almond-like lacrimal gland can be found along the superolateral segment of the orbit. The tuberolacrimal gland requires numerous ducts to excrete the tears into the.
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Parts of Lacrimal Sac • Fundus - Portion above opening of canaliculi • Body - Middle part • Neck - Narrow lower part that is continuous with nasolacrimal duct 14 The lacrimal gland consists of two connecting parts: the larger orbital part and the smaller palpebral part. The gland together with its associated drainage system of ducts form the lacrimal apparatus. This article will discuss the anatomy and function of the lacrimal gland The lacrimal apparatus is composed of four parts: The lacrimal gland is a serous, compound tubuloacinar gland that resembles that parotid gland. It secretes lacrimal fluid (tears) via ducts that open into the conjunctival sac at the lateral portion of the superior conjunctival fornix

Lacrimal apparatus - Anatom

LACRIMAL APPARATUS The lacrimal apparatus consists of the lacrimal glands, which secrete the tears, and the lacrimal sac and ducts, which convey the tears into the nasal cavity. Secretory function of the lacrimal glands declines with age, and many elderly individuals develop dry eye syndrome The ducts of lacrimal gland are roughly 12 in number, about 4 or 5 from orbital part and 6-8 from palpebrae part. They open into the lateral parts of the superior fornix of the conjunctival sac. Lacrimal gland secretes the lacrimal (tear) fluid and its ducts express it to conjunctival sac. About 1 ml of lacrimal fluid is secreted per day LACRIMAL APPARATUS: Anterior view Structures concerned with the secretion and conduction of tears. It includes the lacrimal gland and its secretory ducts, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct, which empties into the nasal cavity The lacrimal apparatus is a complex of tissues and organs that control the production and removal of tear fluid. We cannot see many parts of the lacrimal apparatus on a living person, however, we can see the lacrimal lake and the lacrimal meat in the medial corner of the eye. Both of these formations help to drain excess tear fluid There are two types of lacrimal glands, known as main and accessory lacrimal glands. The main lacrimal glands (located in the upper and outer part of the eye sockets) release extra tears, such as when the eye is irritated and during crying. The main lacrimal gland

Lacrimal Glands and Apparatus - Vasculature - Innervation

Lacrimal Apparatus - an overview ScienceDirect Topic

  1. What is the main function of the lacrimal apparatus? aqueous phase of tearfilm. The aqueous phase of tearfilm provides moisture to corneal epithelium and. The lacrimal gland is divided into two parts, these are: orbital, palpebral. Where does the larger, orbital part of lacrimal gland lie
  2. Save Word Medical Definition of lacrimal apparatus : the bodily parts which function in the production of tears including the lacrimal glands, lacrimal ducts, lacrimal sacs, nasolacrimal ducts, and lacrimal puncta Learn More About lacrimal apparatus
  3. Educational Video created by Dr. Sanjoy Sanyal; Professor, Department Chair, Surgeon, Neuroscientist and Medical Informatician in the Western Hemisphere.It s..

What are the parts of the lacrimal apparatus and functions? 1. Lacrimal gland- Continuously producing lac fluid, superior and lateral to eye 2. Lacrimal caruncle- medial portion 3. Lacrimal punta(2)- helps drain tears, holes in the caruncle 4. Lacrimal canaliculus- helps drain from puncta to.. 5. Lacrimal sac- drains to. This is an online quiz called identify parts of lacrimal apparatus There is a printable worksheet available for download here so you can take the quiz with pen and paper. Search Help in Finding identify parts of lacrimal apparatus - Online Quiz Versio Embryology. The nasolacrimal drainage system serves as a conduit for tear flow from the external eye to the nasal cavity. It consists of the puncta, canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct (see the image below). Overview of the nasolacrimal apparatus. At 32 days' embryonic gestation, the maxillary and frontonasal prominences appear, and. Accessory (adnexal) parts of the eye are anatomical structures that surround and protect the eyeball and support the function of the eye. Those structures include the orbit, eyebrows, eyelids, lacrimal apparatus and extraocular muscles

Anatomy of lacrimal apparatus - SlideShar

The lacrimal bone or os lacrimale is a paired flat craniofacial bone that provides grooves for parts of the lacrimal apparatus (tear production) and a surface for muscle attachment. Both paired bones border with the maxilla, ethmoid, and frontal bones of the face and skull The lacrimal apparatus is the group of little structures that is in charge of tear production. Tears are not only important in keeping the eye moist, but also important in flushing out dust or dirt that does end up going into the eye. Eyelid Skin. The eyelid skin plays an important role in keeping the eyes safe and clean The lacrimal apparatus is the physiological system containing the orbital structures for tear production and drainage. It The blood supply to the lacrimal gland is provided by the ophthalmic artery with its branch - the lacrimal artery, while the.

Lacrimal apparatus - human anatomy organ

The lacrimal apparatus consists of the lacrimal gland, which secretes tears, and a series of ducts that carry tears into the nasal cavity (Figure 3). The lacrimal gland is located in the orbit and secretes tears continuously through tiny tubules. The tears flow downward and medially across the eye Lacrimal apparatus; Lacrimal glands; Lids and the tear film. Let's start with the sclera. The sclera is commonly known as the white part of the eye. It's basically the shell that holds all the internal structures. It is made of collagen and elastic fibers, and it is covered by a thin membrane called the conjunctiva

Video: Lacrimal apparatus - SlideShar

Lacrimal Gland. A very important part of the lacrimal system. The lacrimal gland is responsible for the production of the aqueous tear (watery layer of the tear film) which is used to moisten the surface of the eye. Underproduction of aqueous tears by the lacrimal glands is a serious form of dry eye syndrome The lacrimal fluid is made by the lacrimal apparatus, which begins with the lacrimal gland, found in the lacrimal fossa of the frontal bone. The lacrimal fluid then drains through the excretory ducts of the lacrimal gland into a specialized bursa called the conjunctival sac, which is bound by palpebral conjunctiva and bulbar conjunctiva Lacrimal Apparatus. The lacrimal apparatus is the system responsible for the drainage of lacrimal fluid from the orbit. After secretion, lacrimal fluid circulates across the eye and accumulates in the lacrimal lake - located in the medial canthus of the eye. From here, it drains into the lacrimal sac via a series of canals

Lacrimal gland: Anatomy, supply and function Kenhu

Embryology. The nasolacrimal drainage system serves as a conduit for tear flow from the external eye to the nasal cavity. It consists of the puncta, canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct (see the image below). Overview of the nasolacrimal apparatus. At 32 days' embryonic gestation, the maxillary and frontonasal prominences appear, and. Nasolacrimal anatomy in dogs and cats. The nasolacrimal apparatus consists of the upper and lower lacrimal puncta, the upper and lower canaliculi, the lacrimal sac, and the long nasolacrimal duct that empties into the rostral nasal cavity (Fig. 6.1) SIVATEJA CHALLA ANATOMY OF THE LACRIMAL APPARATUS. 2. 1.Lacrimal gland 2.Lacrimal ducts 3.Conjunctival sac 4.Lacrimal puncta 5.Lacrimal canaliculi 6.Lacrimal sac and 7.Naso lacrimal duct. 3. Embryology Osteology Secretory system Excretory system. 4 The lacrimal gland lies in the superolateral aspect of the orbit. It is part of the lacrimal apparatus and is responsible for tear production. Gross anatomy The lacrimal gland is roughly almond-sized and located anteriorly in the superolateral.. eye anatomy. In human eye: The glandular apparatus. of the lacrimal glands (tear glands). These almond-shaped glands under the upper lids extend inward from the outer corner of each eye. Each gland has two portions. One portion is in a shallow depression in the part of the eye socket formed by the frontal bone. The other portion

Basic Histology of the Eye and Accessory Structures - EyeWik

The lacrimal sac contributes to the production of tears. The lacrimal sac is the upper widened part of the nasolacrimal duct, which is known as the tear duct in layman's terms. In turn, the tear duct is one of the main parts of the lacrimal apparatus. The lacrimal sac plays a role in the production and drainage of tears in the eyes The lacrimal apparatus consists of two divisions. The first is the secretory part, which is responsible for the production of tears, and the second is the drainage part. The secretory part contains the main lacrimal gland, which is lodged in a fossa in the lateral part of the roof of the orbit, and two accessory lacrimal glands of Krause and. The transparent part of the outer fibrous layer of the eye. Allows light into the eye and refracts it. it is about 5-6 layers of avascular cells. Lacrimal Apparatus. produces, distributes and removes tears. Consists of a lacrimal glad with ducts, paired lacrimal canaliculi, a lacrimal sac and a nasolacrimal duct. Fornix

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lacrimal functional unit (lfu) In 2007, dews recognized dry eye as a disturbance of the Lacrimal Functional Unit (LFU), whose parts act together and not in isolation. It is an integrated system comprising the lacrimal glands, ocular surface (cornea, conjunctiva and Meibomian glands), lids, and the sensory and motor nerves that connect The lacrimal glands underneath the skin of the upper eyelids make a fluid that is mostly salt and water. This salty water gets to the eye through small openings inside the upper eyelids. When the eyelid blinks, the watery liquid is spread across the eye. There are other glands on edges of the eyelids that make oils

The lacrimal apparatus, with the help of the conjunctiva, produces the tears that lubricate the eye. Rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma may cause decreased tear production and a dry eye. The lacrimal drainage apparatus may become obstructed, infected, or anatomically unable to drain tears, producing a chronically tearing. Label the structures associated with the lacrimal apparatus. For each item below, use the pull-down menu to select the letter that labels the correct part of the image. 1.1 lacrimal sac: 1.2 excretory ducts of lacrimal gland: 1.3 lacrimal gland: 1.4 nasolacrimal duct 1.5 lacrimal canaliculus Label the parts of the macula of the inner ear An apparatus for intubation of the lacrimal duct comprising a thinner tube (or rod), a thicker tube(s) extending from one end or both ends of a thinner tube (or rod) and a probe which is inserted through a small cut applied to the thicker tube(s) wherein for the tube to be pushed into the lacrimal duct using a probe, the inner surface of the thicker tube(s) has a step(s), protuberance(s. Lacrimal Apparatus Anatomy Orbital part of lacrimal gland, Palpebral part of lacrimal gland, Middle nasal concha, Inferior nasal concha (cut), Orbital part of lacrimal gland, Excretory ducts of lacrimal gland, Palpebral part of lacrimal gland, Plica semilunaris and lacrimal lake, Excretory ducts of lacrimal gland, Opening of nasolacrimal duct, Superior lacrimal papilla and punctum, Lacrimal. Lacrimal Apparatus. The lacrimal (lak′ ri-mă l; tear) apparatus consists of a lacrimal gland situated in the superior lateral corner of the orbit and a nasolacrimal duct and associated structures in the inferior medial corner of the orbit (figure 9.7c). The lacrimal gland produce

  1. Ally 2 . 3 M- FIGURE 30-1 Label these parts of the lacrimal apparatus on the lines provided and on the blanks in the Lab Report at the end of this exercise
  2. Description. The lacrimal sac is the upper dilated end of the nasolacrimal duct, and is lodged in a deep groove formed by the lacrimal bone and frontal process of the maxilla.. It is oval in form and measures from 12 to 15 mm. in length; its upper end is closed and rounded; its lower is continued into the nasolacrimal duct
  3. The lacrimal apparatus is the physiological system containing the orbital structures for tear production and drainage. It consists of: The lacrimal gland, which secretes the tears, and its excretory ducts, which convey the fluid to the surface of the human eye; it is a serous gland located in lacrimal fossa.It is a j-shaped gland; The lacrimal canaliculi, the lacrimal sac, and the nasolacrimal.
  4. Study Anatomy: orbital cavity, eyelids, lacrimal apparatus, conjunctiva flashcards from Kirsty Sutherland's Leicester university class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Learn faster with spaced repetition
  5. A better definition might be that the lacrimal apparatus is made up of 3 parts: (1) the secretory system, consisting of the various glands; (2) the distributional system, consisting of the lids which not only carry the fluid to all parts of the conjunctival sac, but also furnish the motor power for the lacrimal pump; and (3) the excretory system

Additional parts of the orbicularis have been given separate names—namely, Horner's muscle and the muscle of Riolan; they come into close relation with the lacrimal apparatus and assist in drainage of the tears. The muscle of Riolan, lying close to the lid margins, contributes to keeping the lids in close apposition lacrimal apparatus. Listen to this. n. The system that secretes and drains tears into the nasal cavity, consisting of the lacrimal gland, the lacrimal lake, the lacrimal duct, the lacrimal sac, and the nasolacrimal duct An apparatus for the treatment of the lacrimal duct in which both ends of a thinner and softer tube or rod 0.5-0.7 mm OD and 20-40 mm in length are connected with thicker and harder tubes (0.9-1.2 mm OD and 15-50 mm in length), resulting in a total length of 50-120 mm. Both ends (2 mm) are sealed by silicone to make the closed end and then formed sharp pointed in conical shape

Lacrimal apparatus definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now A specimen with focal inflammation illustrated similar findings in the inflammatory part, but the other parts were similar to the specimens without inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: Consecutive microscopic anatomical characteristics of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct were different from each other C69.50 is a billable diagnosis code used to specify a medical diagnosis of malignant neoplasm of unspecified lacrimal gland and duct. The code C69.50 is valid during the fiscal year 2021 from October 01, 2020 through September 30, 2021 for the submission of HIPAA-covered transactions. Unspecified diagnosis codes like C69.50 are acceptable when. the lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct (the lacrimal drainage apparatus) to the inferior nasal meatus below the inferior turbinate (figs. 1 and 2). Embryologically, the drainage structures form as a solid cord of epithelial cells. Canalization begins at the most supe-Lateral Canthal Ligamen

Absence or imperfection of lacrimal puncta and/or canaliculi can occur, and in one report was found to be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. 3 Where absence of the punctum and papilla (congenital punctal agenesis) occurs, it is likely that more distal parts of the lacrimal apparatus are obliterated. Ciactrical Conjunctival Disorders (~2% Specific treatment options may include surgery, when appropriate, to relieve the discomfort causing by malfunctioning parts of the lacrimal apparatus or to correct abnormalities of the fingers, toes and forearms. Hearing aids may benefit some individuals with hearing loss. Dental care is required on a regular basis Total Magnification: 2 3 M FIGURE 30-1 Label these parts of the lacrimal apparatus on the lines provided and on the blanks in the Lab Report at the end of this exercise. (Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) Is this your assignment or some part of it? We can do it for you! Free Services The lacrimal sac is the second part of the nasolacrimal drainage apparatus. lacrimal sac lies in the lacrimal fossa formed by the maxilla and lacrimal bone, on the inferomedial aspect of the orbit. it is crossed anteriorly by the medial palpebral ligament. The lacrimal sac has a superior fundus that tapers inferiorly to a slimmer body and.

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The lacrimal apparatus (lacrimalis) includes a lacrimal gland with its excretory canals opening into the conjunctival sac, and the tear ducts. The lacrimal gland (glandula lacrimalis) is a complex alveolar-tubular gland of the lobate structure, lies in the epithelial pit in the lateral corner, in the upper wall of the orbit The orbital and palpebral parts have specific roles to play during eyelid closure. The palpebral part closes the eye gently, whereas the orbital part closes the eye more forcefully and produces some wrinkling on the forehead.. An additional small lacrimal part of the orbicularis oculi muscle is deep, medial in position, and attaches to bone posterior to the lacrimal sac of the lacrimal. Anatomy of lacrimal apparatus The lacrimal apparatus for each eye consists 1 Lacrimal Glands Location These are serous glands situated at the upper and outer. Sign in Register; Anteriorly the gland is divided into two parts—the upper orbital . part and the lower palpe bral part ANATOMY OF LACRIMAL APPARATUS. DR.Anumeha Lacremal apparatus Concerned with tear formation and transport. Parts :-Main and accesory LG. Includes :-puncta , canaliculi , sac ,and NLD. Main Lacramal Gland Situation:-Focca for Lacramal Gland, formed by orbital plate of frontal bone in the Antrolatral part of roof of orbit The Lacrimal Apparatus And Tear Lacrimal Fluid. In this image, you will find Upper lacrimal canal, lower lacrimal canal, lacrimal fluid, tear in it. The lacrimal apparatus: The lacrimal apparatus is a system of glands and ducts responsible for producing and draining lacrimal fluid, also known as tears. Tears are a watery solution containing.

Lacrimal Gland Leer en Español: Glándula Lagrimal. Mar. 28, 2016 Located above the eye, this structure produces tears. Read an overview of general eye anatomy to learn how the parts of the eye work together. Find an Ophthalmologist. Search. Advanced Search. Ask an Ophthalmologist. Browse Answers. Free Newsletter. B. Name the 5 accessory structures of the eye. Eyelids, eyelashes, eyebrows, lacrimal apparatus, extrinsic eye muscles. A & P name for the eyelids. Palpebrae. Thick fold of connective tissue that gives form and support to the eyelids. Tarsal plate. Inner lining of the eyelid. Palpebral conjunctiva Lacrimal Apparatus. This is the term used for a group of structures that. manufacture and drain away tears. Included are the lacrimal glands, the execratory. lacrimal ducts, the lacrimal canals, the lacrimal sacs, and the nasolacrimal ducts. (1) Lacrimal gland. A lacrimal gland is located in the upper outer corner of Anatomy and diseases of lacrimal apparatus There are chronic irritative symptoms.The cornea shows superficial punctate or a filamentary keratitis. - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 5fbbb0-ZDVk

Lacrimal apparatus definition of lacrimal apparatus by

The lacrimal apparatus consists of the lacrimal gland and a number of ducts that drain the lacrimal secretions into the nasal cavity. Lacrimal glands . The lacrimal glands are located above the lateral end of each eye; they continually release a salt solution ( tears ) onto the anterior surface of the eyeball through several small ducts **NOTE: the parts of the lacrimal apparatus are: lacrimal gland; lacrimal canaliculi; lacrimal sac; nasolacrimal duct 4. Define orbicularis oculi m.: palpebral part vs. orbital part. What are differences? (N26, TG7-30, TG7-57, TG7-58) The orbital part of orbicularis oculi surrounds the bony orbit, while the palpebral part extends into the lids. 5

The lacrimal apparatus is the physiological system containing the orbital structures for tear production and drainage. It consists of: The lacrimal gland, which secretes the tears, and its excretory ducts, which convey the fluid to the surface of the human eye; it is a serous gland located in lacrimal fossa Body Parts to Know: - Lacrimal apparatus = lacrimal gland + ducts - Lacrimal gland: produces lacrimal fluid; situated on lateral aspect of each eye. - Lacrimal canaliculi: drain lacrimal fluid from eyes medially. - Lacrimal sac: provides passage of lacrimal fluid toward The nasolacrimal duct (NLD) is the terminal part of the nasolacrimal apparatus.. Gross anatomy. The nasolacrimal duct is the inferior continuation of the lacrimal sac and is ~17 mm in length in total. There are two parts to the nasolacrimal duct: intraosseous part (12 mm): enters the lacrimal groove and descends within the nasolacrimal canal of the maxill The Lacrimal Apparatus (apparatus lacrimalis) (Fig. 896) consists of (a) the lacrimal gland, which secretes the tears, and its excretory ducts, which convey the fluid to the surface of the eye; (b) the lacrimal ducts, the lacrimal sac, and the nasolacrimal duct, by which the fluid is conveyed into the cavity of the nose Figure 11-2 The lacrimal apparatus.The lacrimal (tear) gland and its associated ducts are shown. mal) duct (see Fig. 11-2). An excess of tears causes a runny nose; a greater overproduction of them re-sults in the tears spilling onto the cheeks. With age, the lacrimal glands produce less secretion, but tear

Anatomy of the Eye - Drawingforall

The lacrimal apparatus is represented by the lacrimal gland and tear ducts (Figure 11.3). The lacrimal gland is located in the upper-lateral corner of the orbit. It gives off a tear rich in lysozyme. Lysozyme performs a bactericidal function The lacrimal apparatus comprises (1) Main lacrimal gland, (2) Accessory lacrimal glands, and (3) Lacrimal passages, which include: puncta, canaliculi, lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct (NLD) (Fig. 15.1). Main lacrimal gland It consists of an upper orbital and a lower palpebral part. (1) Orbital part is larger, about the size an The lacrimal gland is divided into two parts: the superior lacrimal gland and the inferior lacrimal gland. Leading from these glands are six to twelve lacrimal ducts that empty tears (lacrimal fluid) onto the surface of the conjunctiva. The tears bathe the surface of the eye and then pass medially into two openings called lacrimal punctae The embryonic anlage of the lacrimal apparatus appears in the naso-optic groove at about the end of the second fetal month. Its position can sometimes be seen as a birth mark: a round spot with slightly different pigmentation than the surrounding skin, ~ 5 to 10 mm beneath and medial to the punctum of the lower eyelid

Lacrimal Apparatus - MedFriendly

The lacrimal apparatus consists of the lacrimal glands main lacrimal gland accessory lacrimal glands and the lacrimal passages puncta canaliculi lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct nld. Correctly label the structures associated with the lacrimal apparatus.. The lacrimal gland which secretes tears lies over the upper outer corner of the eye Lacrimal Apparatus; Face- Nerve Supply; Face - Arterial Supply; Parotid Gland; Posterior Triangle of Neck; Head & Neck Regions II. Anterior Triangle of Neck - Submental and Muscular triangles; Carotid Triangle; Thyroid Gland; Temporal Fossa; Infratemporal Fossa; Muscles of Mastication; Temporomandibular Joint; Submandibular Gland.

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Study Lecture 15- The Eye: Orbit and Lacrimal apparatus (Pt1) flashcards from Saskia Chapman's Leicester Medical School class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Learn faster with spaced repetition The lacrimal apparatus. The lacrimal gland and other structure of tear producing organ, eps10. Lacrimal apparatus. Medical illustration of the anatomy of the lacrimal apparatus Parts of the eye, labeled vector illustration diagram. Educational beauty and nursing information. Eyelid, eyelashes, pupil, lacrimal gland and other Lacrimal Sac: Lacrimal sac is situated at the medial and inferior wall of the orbit in a shallow depression which is called lacrimal fossa. It acts as a reservoir for lacrimal fluid. Lacrimal sac drains into the naso-lacrimal duct. The sac, closed above and open below, is continuous with nasolacrimal 'duct. Parts of the lacrimal Sac: 1) Fundus. The lacrimal apparatus consisted of an orbital part and a nasal cavity part. The orbital lacrimal apparatus consisted of a simple lacrimal sac, paired canaliculi with the dorsal and ventral puncta (Wilkie and Rings, 1990; Shadkhast et al., 2008; Bigham and Shadkhast, 2009) Eyelids,LacrimalApparatus, andConjunctiva Milton Boniuk,MD,Houston HIS REVIEW covers many of the arti¬ cles related to eyelids, lacrimal apparatus, and conjunctiva for the period extending from the summer of 1970 to the summer of 1971. Some articles had to be omitted be¬ cause oflackofspace. The Eyelids Congenital and Hereditary.—Distichiasis refers to an accessory row of lashes alon