ATM ATM Mutation is present in 5.16% of AACR GENIE cases, with lung adenocarcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma, prostate adenocarcinoma, and bladder urothelial carcinoma having the greatest prevalence [ 4 ]. Top Disease Cases with ATM Mutation Germ-line mutations of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene result in the well-characterized ataxia telangiectasia syndrome, which manifests with an increased cancer predisposition, including a 20% to 30% lifetime risk of lymphoid, gastric, breast, central nervous system, skin, and other cancers ATM is a gene that normally helps repair damaged DNA. If you have an irregularity, or a mutation, in this gene, it doesn't work like it should. If You Carry an ATM Mutation, What Cancers Are You at..
What does it mean to have an ATM gene mutation? Individuals with mutations in the ATM gene have an increased risk for breast cancer, sometimes at relatively young ages. This increase in risk is not as high as BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, but it is high enough to consider options to reduce cancer risk and increased screening ATM Mutations in the Family There is a 50/50 random chance to pass on an ATM mutation to your sons and daughters. The image to the right shows that both men and women can carry and pass on these mutations. Has ATM mutation No ATM mutation
Certain rare mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, combined with radiation exposure, may increase a woman's risk of developing a second cancer in the opposite breast, according.. I have the ATM gene mutation also and went ahead with the bilateral in September of 2016. Have not run across too many with this, but then again, they did not usually test for this or patients did not pursue testing. I hope things are going well for you. It does get better. Jump to this post The ATM gene is associated with autosomal dominant predisposition to breast, pancreatic (PMID: 26483394) and possibly prostate cancer (PMID: 27989354, 28657667) in addition to autosomal recessive ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) (MedGen UID: 439) Understanding Your Positive ATM Genetic Test Result information for patients with a pathogenic mutation or variant, likely pathogenic ATM Mutations in the Family There is a 50/50 random chance to pass on an ATM mutation to your sons and daughters. The image to the right shows that both men and women can carry and pass on these mutations. Has ATM
Alteration of the ATM gene occurs in gastric cancer cell lines and primary tumors associated with cellular response to DNA damage. Zhang L, Jia G, Li WM, Guo RF, Cui JT, Yang L, Lu YY. Mutat Res 2004 Jan 10;557 (1):41-51. PMID: 14706517. ATM missense mutations are frequent in patients with breast cancer AMT gene mutations alter the structure and function of aminomethyltransferase. When an altered version of this enzyme is incorporated into the glycine cleavage system, it impairs the system's ability to break down glycine. Some AMT gene mutations reduce the activity of the glycine cleavage system, while others completely eliminate its activity.
Women who have a mutation in the ATM, CDH1, CHEK2, NBN, NF1, or STK11 genes who do not have a double mastectomy should have screening with both an annual mammogram and an annual MRI. In most cases, you would have one screening and then the other 6 months later ATM mutations participate in the DNA damage repair (DDR), and accumulated evidences have indicated that ATM is involved in tumor immunity . Additionally, an analysis of 9064 tumors across 24 cancer types showed that mutation of ATM was the most prevalent among 22 DNA repair genes [ 19 ] The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene (MIM ID 208900) encodes a protein kinase that plays a major role in activating cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks through downstream..
Subsequent studies have identified the responsible gene, Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM), characterized genetic variation at this locus in A-T and a variety of different cancers, and described the functions of the ATM protein with regard to cellular DNA damage responses . These mutations are displayed at the amino acid level across the full length of the gene by default. Restrict the view to a region of the gene by dragging across the histogram to highlight the region of interest, or by using the sliders in the filters panel to the left Numerous different mutations in the ATM gene have been identified in classical AT and in some patients with variant forms of AT ( 26).The majority of the published mutations in the ATM gene are truncating, although missense substitutions and in-frame-deletions have also been found ( 15, 27-36).Until now most studies have used cDNA-based screening techniques for mutation analysis and, thus, a.
The highest increase in risk was associated with a BRCA1 mutation (5.91 times higher risk) and the lowest increase in risk was associated with an ATM mutation (1.74 times higher risk). The researchers found that 11 gene mutations were significantly associated with ovarian cancer risk: ATM-- 1.7 times higher risk BRCA1-- 12 times higher ris ATM Gene Mutation clinical trials at UCSF . 1 research study open to eligible people . Showing trials for . All Female Male . All ages Under 18 Over 18. Olaparib In Metastatic Breast Cancer. open to eligible people ages 18 years and up . This research study is for patients with metastatic breast cancer. - Metastatic means that the cancer has. ATM serine/threonine kinase (ATM) is a gene that encodes a protein that is a member of the PI3/PI4-kinase family. Missense mutations, nonsense mutations, silent mutations, whole gene deletions, frameshift deletions and insertions, and in-frame deletions and insertions are observed in cancers such as endometrial cancer, intestinal cancer.
This is an autosomal recessive disorder as a result of mutations in the ATM gene located at 11q22-q23. Affected offspring of consanguineous matings are often homozygous for this mutation whereas those from unrelated parents are usually compound heterozygotes ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) germline mutations are responsible for ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, bulbar. nm_000051. 3 (atm): c. 4777-10_4777-7delins ctcttttagttacatttacattttagttaa rs1555101600 NM_000051. 3 (ATM) : c. 4777- 3T> The information on this website is not intended for direct diagnostic use or medical decision-making without review by a genetics professional ATM gene mutation. Close. 1. Posted by. Layperson/not verified as healthcare professional. 4 months ago. ATM gene mutation. 34 year old female with strong family history of cancer (just on my dad's side, none on my moms). Tested positive for the ATM gene mutation. My doctor at the high risk breast clinic wants me to meet with an oncologist to.
ATM mutations that cause ataxia-telangiectasia in biallelic carriers are breast cancer susceptibility alleles in monoallelic carriers, with an estimated relative risk of 2.37; physical interaction between the major DSB signaling kinase, ATM and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP-1, a key enzyme of chromatin remodeling Mutations in the ATM gene prevent the enzymes from gathering. Damaged DNA goes un-repaired, causing mutations in other genes to accumulate. A mutation in both copies of the ATM gene causes ataxia telangiectasia, a genetic disorder that affects the immune and nervous systems. Children with this disease are particularly susceptible to developing.
The study found six genes clearly linked to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer: BRCA1, BRCA2, CDKN2A, TP53, MLH1 and ATM. These genetic mutations were identified in 5.5 percent of all pancreatic cancer patients, including 5.2 percent of cancer patients without a family history of pancreatic cancer In their cohort, at least 2.4% of the familial pancreatic cases could be explained by ATM mutations. ATM has an important multifunctional role in the DNA damage response. In the presence of DNA strand breaks, ATM regulates DNA repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis ( 5 )
When examined one at a time, mutations in three specific genes occurred at a higher rate in those with IPMN: ATM, PTCH1 and SUFU. ATM is a known pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene, commonly found in pancreatic cancer patients with and without a family history of the disease For ATM, there is evidence that only variants capable of causing ataxia—telangiectasia in the homozygous state, mostly nonsense mutations, increase breast cancer risk in the heterozygous state
Ataxia Telangiectasia (A-T) has a frequency of approximately 1 in 40,000 births in the United States  . The carrier rate of A-T, which is an autosomal recessive genetic condition, is approximately 2.8% in the United States . Natural History. A-T is an inherited genetic condition caused by mutations in ATM Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), caused by mutations in the ATM (A-T mutated) gene, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive neuronal degeneration, immunologic deficiency, radiosensitivity, premature aging, and an increased risk of cancer (1, 2). As many as one third of A-T patients develop cancer, with the majority of these cancers being of the lymphoid type ()
ATM mutation significantly upregulated the number of DNA damage repair pathway gene mutations (P<0.05). ATM mutations resulted in increased bladder cancer sensitivity to 29 drugs (P<0.05), including cisplatin and BMS-536924, an IGF-1R inhibitor Mutations in the ATM gene, specifically those predicted to result in amino acid substitutions, were significantly increased in breast carcinoma cases selected for positive family history Mutations in the ATM gene result in an altered ATM protein, that does not function normally. If ATM can no longer activate CHK2 or TP53 (see graphic above), then there is no Cell cycle arrest. Cell cycle arrest is a pause in the cell cycle that allows cells to repair damaged DNA
. This protein is an important cell cycle checkpoint kinase that phosphorylates; thus, it functions as a regulator of a wide variety of downstream proteins, including tumor suppressor proteins p53 and BRCA1, checkpoint kinase CHK2, checkpoint proteins RAD17 and RAD9, and DNA repair protein NBS1 Mutations in the ATM gene located on the long arm of chromosome 11 at 11q22-23 cause ataxia-telangiectasia, an autosomal recessive disorder that is associated with increased incidence of malignancy and, particularly, lymphoid tumors. A role for ATM in the development of sporadic T-cell chronic leukemias is supported by the finding of loss of heterozygosity at 11q22-23 and ATM mutations in.
In both studies, mutations or variants in eight genes ― BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, ATM, and CHEK2 — were found to be significantly associated with breast cancer risk ATM is a 'cancer protection' gene that helps to protect against breast and pancreatic cancer. Everyone has two ATM genes (one from their mother, and one from their father). If one of the genes is not working, this is known as having a faulty ATM gene, or having an ATM mutation. The c.7271T>G mutation is known to be associated with an. Background The rarity of mutations in PALB2 , CHEK2 and ATM make it difficult to estimate precisely associated cancer risks. Population-based family studies have provided evidence that at least some of these mutations are associated with breast cancer risk as high as those associated with rare BRCA2 mutations. We aimed to estimate the relative risks associated with specific rare variants in.
ATM The A T M gene is a tumor suppressor gene. Some studies have suggested that individuals with A T M mutations have a higher sensitivity to ionizing radiation, such as that used in treating cancer.. NT Moderate-risk mutations are associated with a 2- to 5-fold increase in breast cancer risk and include those in ATM, CHEK2, and NBN. The lifetime risk for breast cancer among women with one of these mutations is 20% to 30%, and higher if there is a family history of breast cancer. For example, a significant family history of breast cancer. Germline mutations in the BRCA2 gene are linked to development of prostate cancer (PCa) and suggests BRCA1/2 and ATM mutation carrier status may help distinguish lethal from indolent PCa, a new. Mutations in the ATM gene are responsible for the ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, ocular telangiectasia, immunodeficiency, high sensitivity to ionizing radiation, and predisposition to lymphoid malignancies.13AT cells show chromosomal instability, telomere shortening, and defects in response to ionizing. An important difference is that in cancer, ATM is mutated, but the effects of these mutations on ATM function are, for the most part, unknown. As shown in Figure 1, literally hundreds of mutations have been identified in ATM and these mutations are scattered throughout the coding region. Apart from R337H/C, a hotspot mutation prevalent in.
Introduction. The genetic basis of breast cancer (BC) is linked to several high- and/or moderate-penetrance mutations in BC susceptibility genes. 1 Among them, mutations in the BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53 and ATM genes are the most studied tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) influencing the therapeutic approach to BC. 2 In fact, with the widespread use of genomics, information on the pathogenic variants of. In all 6 cases, mutations of the second ATM allele were identified, leading to the absence, premature termination, or alteration of the ATM gene product. Thus, the study demonstrated disruption of both ATM alleles by deletion or point mutation in TPLL, suggesting that ATM functions as a tumor suppressor gene in tumors of non-AT individuals Oh, I also have the ATM and PALB2 gene mutation. Hit me with the good, bad and ugly. Log in or register to post comments; Catholic. Posts: 86 Joined: May 2016: Jul 24, 2018 - 9:33 am. I am not a doctor. I am a. I am not a doctor. I am a caregiver to my wife who took tamoxifen
.4 months vs. 3.6 months on hormone therapies, corresponding to a 66% decrease in the risk of disease worsening or death About Mutations in the ATM Gene This information explains how having a mutation in the ATM gene may affect you and your family. In this resource, the word family means family members related to you by blood. They are not related to you through marriage or adoption. Your ATM gene normally helps prevent cancers. A mutation in this gene makes i
The ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein is the principal activator of the p53 protein in the response to DNA double-strand breaks. Mutations in the ATM gene have been previously found in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (B-CLLs) but their clinical significance is unknown. We analyzed 155 CLL tumors and found 12% with ATM mutations and 4% with TP53 mutations; 2 tumors contained. The ATM gene and AT. To date, more than 100 mutations have been identified among patients with AT, and these occur over the entire coding region of the ATM gene. 18 - 21 Most mutations (70-80%) are predicted to produce either a truncated protein product or no product at all. 18, 21, 22 Inactivation of the ATM gene is caused primarily by small deletions or insertions Inherited mutations in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene increase the odds of developing pancreatic cancer according to a new study. While there is predisposition for pancreatic cancer with up to 10% of cases occurring among families with a history of the disease, the genetic basis for this had not been previously discovered Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is the gene that underlies the rare condition after which it was named.Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a neurodegenerative, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases (damaged small blood vessels) in the conjunctiva and skin, immunological deficiency, hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation and increased risk of cancer  Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive disorder resulting from germline mutation of the A-T mutated (ATM) gene on chromosome 11q. Upon sensing double-stranded breaks (DSB), the wild-type kinase encoded by ATM initiates the DNA-damage response by phosphorylating histone H2AX and, subsequently, various other proteins, such as BRCA1 and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex, which are.
Ashkenazi Jewish populations, ATM gene, lung cancer, Research. There's something unusual about this ATM genetic variant and how it acts, said Dr. Chris Amos. It was really unexpected to see such a strong genetic effect in lung cancer.. Lung cancer, illustrated here as round masses inside the lungs, is the second most common cancer. The association between specific types of ATM genetic variants and breast cancer susceptibility is less clear, 10-12 with some evidence showing that certain missense mutations may act in a dominant-negative fashion to increase cancer risk, relative to truncating mutations. 10,11 A meta-analysis including 5 studies showed that ATM mutation.
We've known that mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are linked with an increased risk for breast cancer. Now we know 5 other genes associated with a high risk for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) thanks to a study by former American Cancer Society grant recipient, Fergus J. Couch, PhD. Knowing these genes can help doctors improve the screening process for women who have a personal or. Inherited gene mutations known to increase the risk of breast cancer are rare in the general population. In the U.S., 5-10 percent of breast cancers are related to an inherited gene mutation [ 4,28 ]. BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer genes 1 and 2) are the most well-known genes linked to breast cancer risk. Everyone has these genes The pathogenicity of the ATM mutations detected by Guarini et al. in CLL was formally demonstrated by elegant model studies of the ATM protein that unambiguously localized the mutations to functionally relevant sites, including the ATP-binding pocket of ATM.16 Having identified a subset of CLL with ATM mutations in the absence of ATM deletions.
THE RANGE OF MUTATIONS IN THE ATM GENE AND THEIR EFFECTS. The classic form of A-T results from the presence of two truncating ATM mutations, leading to total loss of function of the ATM protein, 20 whereas milder forms are associated with a leaky splice site ATM mutation 21- 23 or the presence of missense mutations. 22, 24. ATM protein truncating mutations. The sine qua non for the diagnosis. A-T is caused by mutations in the ATM (ATM serine/threonine kinase or ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) gene, which was cloned in 1995. ATM is located on human chromosome 11 (11q22.3) and is made up of 69 exons spread across 150kb of genomic DNA. The mode of inheritance for A-T is autosomal recessive. Each parent is a carrier, meaning that. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a kinase that acts upstream of p53 and controls a DDR pathway critical to resolving double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs). ATM has considerable functional redundancy with the ATR pathway [5,52]. Therefore, a second scenario in which tumor cells can become addicted to the ATR pathway is through ATM loss DNA damage repair is a complex process, which can trigger the development of cancer if disturbed. In this study, we hypothesize a role of variants in the ATM, H2AFX and MRE11 genes in determining breast cancer (BC) susceptibility. We examined the whole sequence of the ATM kinase domain and estimated the frequency of founder mutations in the ATM gene (c.5932G > T, c.6095G > A, and c.7630-2A > C. The germline ATM mutation was splice site c.8585-2A > C, which results in loss of function. 12 The ATM mutation allele frequency was 47.6%, the MSI (microsatellite instability) status stable, and the PDL-1 tumor proportion score was 0%. TABLE 1: Molecular Alterations Identified in the Patient
Z15.09 is a billable/specific ICD-10-CM code that can be used to indicate a diagnosis for reimbursement purposes. The 2021 edition of ICD-10-CM Z15.09 became effective on October 1, 2020. This is the American ICD-10-CM version of Z15.09 - other international versions of ICD-10 Z15.09 may differ The above information about cancer risks is relevant for people who have a single mutation in the ATM gene. Importantly, if a child inherits mutations in both copies the ATM gene (one mutation from mom and one mutation from dad), this causes a different genetic condition called ataxia telangiectasia ATM abnormalities are frequent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and represent an important prognostic factor. Sole 11q deletion does not result in ATM inactivation by contrast to biallelic defects involving mutations. Therefore, the analysis of ATM mutations and their functional impact is crucial. In this study, we analyzed ATM mutations in predominantly high-risk patients using: i. Two studies published this year, one by Tatjana Stankovic and colleagues (Jan 2, p 26)1, showed the presence of mutations in the ATM gene, which is defective in ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T), in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL). After the discovery of missense mutations in T-cell and B-cell malignant disease and our suggestion of a putative increase of A-T heterozygotes in patients.
1. MLH1 gene mutation (V84.89) (Z15.89) 2. Genetic predisposition to cancer (V84.09) (Z15.09) Plan Genetic predisposition to cancer 1. GASTROENTEROLOGY Consult Only 36 year old female who requested genetic testing due to a mother with uterine cancer and she was found to have a germline MLH1 mutation which is consistent with Lynch syndrome. . The ataxia‐telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, which is mutated in the autosomal recessive disorder ataxia‐telangiectasia (AT), was isolated in 1995 by positional cloning.Although in vitro cell fusion studies had suggested that AT was genetically heterogeneous, all AT patients studied to date have been found to harbor mutations in the ATM gene. . More than 100 ATM mutations occurring in AT.
. Both of these tests carry minor risks and should be discussed with an experienced doctor or genetic counselor. Special concerns. Genetic testing for ataxia-telangiectasia is a complex process. Those thinking about testing should take time to consider the. Performance of Blueprint Genetics high-quality, clinical grade NGS sequencing assay for single genes. Sensitivity % (TP/ (TP+FN) Specificity %. Single nucleotide variants. 99.89% (99,153/99,266) >99.9999%. Insertions, deletions and indels by sequence analysis People who have mutations in one copy of the ATM gene, particularly those who have at least one family member with ataxia-telangiectasia, may be at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. The ATM gene is located in chromosome band 11q22.3. The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family The ATM gene also helps to repair damaged DNA and stop cell division until this repair is complete, and a metaanalysis of abnormal variants points to a relative breast cancer risk of 2.8 times higher than average. Mutations in PTEN are linked to Cowden syndrome, in which patients have a high risk of both benign and cancerous breast tumors The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encodes a protein kinase involved in DNA repair with downstream targets BRCA1, p53, and Chk2 .Homozygous mutations result in an autosomal recessive condition, ataxia-telangiectasia. This is characterized by cerebellar degeneration and oculocutaneous telangiectasia .Increased breast cancer risk was first noted in hyeterozygotic mutation carriers.
Background: ATM mutations, one of a family of DNA repair defects prevalent in prostate cancer, have been included in a list of actionable mutations for PARP inhibitor (PARPi) therapeutic trials. Despite preclinical evidence, PARPi have shown minimal clinical activity in ATM mutant prostate cancer (ATMmPCa). The present analysis explores co-occurring genomic alterations that may drive [ title = ATM mutations in patients with hereditary pancreatic cancer, abstract = Pancreatic cancers are the fourth most-common cause of cancer-related deaths in the Western world, with >200,000 cases reported in 2010. Although up to 10% of these cases occur in familial patterns, the hereditary basis for predisposition in the vast majority of. Furthermore, human tumors with ATM mutations responded significantly better to ICB therapy in a large patient cohort, suggesting that ATM gene mutation may serve as a predictive biomarker for ICB treatment. Results. ATM inhibition suppresses tumor growth and sensitizes tumors to PD-1 blockade The researchers were even able to use ATM mutation status to predict which cells would be sensitive to Mekinist. Additional tests in mice carrying human lung tumors showed similar results, with the growth of tumors carrying mutations in the ATM gene stopping completely upon administration of the MEK inhibitor selumetinib. In some mice, the.
Mutations in the ATM gene may increase the hereditary risk for pancreatic cancer, according to data published in Cancer Discovery, the newest journal of the American Association for Cancer Research Gene Mutations: RELEVANCE IN CANCER. A recent analysis of 20,000 protein-coding genes derived from 3284 cancers revealed a total of 294,881 mutations of which only 125 mutated driver genes were identified comprising 71 suppressor genes and 54 oncogenes. Although subject to broad interpretation, the mutational theory of cancer acknowledges. Retraction Note: Association of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) Gene Mutation/Deletion with Rhabdomyosarcoma - retraction. Peilin Zhang 1, Kunjan S Bhakta 2, Pier Lorenzo Puri 2, Robert O Newbury 4, James R Feramisco 3 & Jean Y Wang 2,3 Molecular Cancer volume 2, Article number: 17 (2003) Cite this articl Gholson Lyon, assistant professor at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York found a strong connection between mutations in the NAA15 gene, a protein modifier, and neurodevelopmental delays. Lyon and his team identified 38 people with a harmful NAA15 mutation, 24 of which had autism features and 23 had an intellectual disability. This finding i ATM: The ATM gene normally helps repair damaged DNA (or helps kill the cell if the damaged can't be fixed). Inheriting 2 abnormal copies of this gene causes the disease ataxia-telangiectasia . Inheriting one abnormal copy of this gene has been linked to a high rate of breast cancer in some families
Functional and computational assessment of missense variants in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene: mutations with increased cancer risk † M. Mitui , Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, Californi The ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene (MIM ID 208900) encodes a protein kinase that plays a major role in activating cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks through downstream phosphorylation of central players in the DNA damage-response pathways, including BRCA1, p53, and Chk2 .More than 20 years ago, Swift et al.  reported that female relatives of patients with the. Gene Symbol: ATM: Synonyms: AT1 | ATA | ATC | ATD | ATDC | ATE | TEL1 | TELO1: Gene Description: ATM, ATM serine/threonine kinase, is a member of the serine-threonine kinase family and coordinates cellular responses to DNA damage through activation of distinct DNA repair and signaling pathways (PMID: 22079189).ATM germline mutations are associated with ataxia telangiectasia (PMID: 27283171. The majority of mutations detected thus far in the ATM gene in patients with AT are predicted to result in protein truncation (Gilad et al. 1996; Concannon and Gatti 1997). Western blot analyses of cell lines of pa-tients with AT, with antibodies directed against ATM, indicate that most of these truncating mutations are as